del Valle J., Santos D., Delgado-Martínez I., de la Oliva N., Giudetti G., Micera S., Navarro X. Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine; 12 (4): e1991 – e2000. 2018. 10.1002/term.2629. IF: 4.089
Segregation of regenerating motor and sensory axons may be a good strategy to improve selective functionality of regenerative interfaces to provide closed-loop commands. Provided that extracellular matrix components and neurotrophic factors exert guidance effects on different neuronal populations, we assessed in vivo the potential of separating sensory and motor axons regenerating in a bicompartmental Y-type tube, with each branch prefilled with an adequate combination of extracellular matrix and neurotrophic factors. The severed rat sciatic nerve was repaired using a bicompartmental tube filled with a collagen matrix enriched with fibronectin (FN) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) encapsulated in poly-lactic co-glycolic acid microspheres (FN + MP.BDNF) in one compartment to preferentially attract motor axons and collagen enriched with laminin (LM) and nerve growth factor (NGF) and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) in microspheres (LM + MP.NGF/NT-3) in the other compartment for promoting sensory axons regeneration. Control animals were implanted with the same Y-tube with a collagen matrix with microspheres (MP) containing PBS (Col + MP.PBS). By using retrotracer labelling, we found that LM + MP.NGF/NT-3 did not attract higher number of regenerated sensory axons compared with controls, and no differences were observed in sensory functional recovery. However, FN + MP.BDNF guided a higher number of regenerating motor axons compared with controls, improving also motor recovery. A small proportion of sensory axons with large soma size, likely proprioceptive neurons, was also attracted to the FN + MP.BDNF compartment. These results demonstrate that muscular axonal guidance can be modulated in vivo by the addition of fibronectin and BDNF. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.