Blaschke B.M., Böhm P., Drieschner S., Nickel B., Garrido J.A. Langmuir; 34 (14): 4224 – 4233. 2018. 10.1021/acs.langmuir.8b00162.
Anionic and cationic lipids are key molecules involved in many cellular processes; their distribution in biomembranes is highly asymmetric, and their concentration is well-controlled. Graphene solution-gated field-effect transistors (SGFETs) exhibit high sensitivity toward the presence of surface charges. Here, we establish conditions that allow the observation of the formation of charged lipid layers on solution-gated field-effect transistors in real time. We quantify the electrostatic screening of electrolyte ions and derive a model that explains the influence of charged lipids on the ion sensitivity of graphene SGFETs. The electrostatic model is validated using structural information from X-ray reflectometry measurements, which show that the lipid monolayer forms on graphene. We demonstrate that SGFETs can be used to detect cationic lipids by self-exchange of lipids. Furthermore, SGFETs allow measuring the kinetics of layer formation induced by vesicle fusion or spreading from a reservoir. Because of the high transconductance and low noise of the electrical readout, we can observe characteristic conductance spikes that we attribute to bouncing-off events of lipid aggregates from the SGFET surface, suggesting a great potential of graphene SGFETs to measure the on-off kinetics of small aggregates interacting with supported layers. © 2018 American Chemical Society.