Bonaccini Calia A., Masvidal-Codina E., Smith T.M., Schäfer N., Rathore D., Rodríguez-Lucas E., Illa X., De la Cruz J.M., Del Corro E., Prats-Alfonso E., Viana D., Bousquet J., Hébert C., Martínez-Aguilar J., Sperling J.R., Drummond M., Halder A., Dodd A., Barr K., Savage S., Fornell J., Sort J., Guger C., Villa R., Kostarelos K., Wykes R.C., Guimerà-Brunet A., Garrido J.A. Nature Nanotechnology; 17 (3):301-309. 2022. 10.1038/s41565-021-01041-9
Mapping the entire frequency bandwidth of brain electrophysiological signals is of paramount importance for understanding physiological and pathological states. The ability to record simultaneously DC-shifts, infraslow oscillations (<0.1 Hz), typical local field potentials (0.1–80 Hz) and higher frequencies (80–600 Hz) using the same recording site would particularly benefit preclinical epilepsy research and could provide clinical biomarkers for improved seizure onset zone delineation. However, commonly used metal microelectrode technology suffers from instabilities that hamper the high fidelity of DC-coupled recordings, which are needed to access signals of very low frequency. In this study we used flexible graphene depth neural probes (gDNPs), consisting of a linear array of graphene microtransistors, to concurrently record DC-shifts and high-frequency neuronal activity in awake rodents. We show here that gDNPs can reliably record and map with high spatial resolution seizures, pre-ictal DC-shifts and seizure-associated spreading depolarizations together with higher frequencies through the cortical laminae to the hippocampus in a mouse model of chemically induced seizures. Moreover, we demonstrate the functionality of chronically implanted devices over 10 weeks by recording with high fidelity spontaneous spike-wave discharges and associated infraslow oscillations in a rat model of absence epilepsy. Altogether, our work highlights the suitability of this technology for in vivo electrophysiology research, and in particular epilepsy research, by allowing stable and chronic DC-coupled recordings.